The Romanian Academy Institute of Atomic Physics had been established on the 1st of September 1949, at Bucharest. Its founder, Horia Hulubei (1896-1972) had sustained his doctorate at Paris, under the guidance of two Nobel laureates, Jean Perrin and Marie Curie. Horia Hulubei was member of the Romanian Academy, and as well of the French Academy. In 1956, IFA had been parted in Institute of Atomic Physics, with the headquarters at Magurele, at the periphery of Bucharest, under the guidance of the same Horia Hulubei, and Institute of Physics (IFB), with the head office at the Bucharest University Faculty of Physics. At H. Hulubei's proposal and with his direct support, the IFA specialists have designed, in 1956, the first electronic computer, which represented, at that time, an absolute premiere at the soviet level. The first computer, CIFA1, worked with a speed of 50 instructions per second. The first Romanian laser, He-Ne infrared type, had been created by professor Ion I. Agârbiceanu and his team, and had been put into service on the 20th of October 1962. IFA and IFB have then merged, forming the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN, at the present IFIN-HH). IFIN together with several other institutes have been accredited as national institutes in 1996. With this occasion, the institute had received its actual name, in the memory of his founder: National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering "Horia Hulubei" (IFIN-HH). For further details, see http://www.nipne.ro/au/au.html
Department for Applied Nuclear Physics
- acquisitions, experimental data processing
- nuclear radiations detectors and advanced detecting systems
- tomography with pozitronic emission
- low background alpha/beta spectrometry
- mass spectrometry with accelerator
For further details, see http://www.nipne.ro/Struct/AppPhyDep/index.html
The archaeometry group employs methods based on nuclear and atomic physics for the study of the diverse aspects related to art and archaeology objects (authentication, provenance, restoration, conservation), having as final goal conservation and revaluation of the national cultural heritage.
Available analyze methods
- XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) with a 241Am source;
- PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) at the Tandem accelerator;
Participation at Large Scale Facility Access (LSFA) experiments, European Union frame programme
- Microstructure studies using micro-PIXE at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Germany, and Laboratori Nationale di Legnaro, Italy;
- Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence, Lund, Sweden.
Partaking at UE actions:
- COST G1 Action "Ion beam analysis for art and archaeological objects" (1995-2000)
- COST G8 Action "Non-destructive analysis and testing of museum objects" (2001-2006)
Types of samples analyzed:
- gold, silver, cooper (especially coins)
- ceramics, porcelain, glass
For further details, see http://www.nipne.ro/Struct/AppPhyDep
The institution had been created in 1970, the first exhibition being opened for the public in 1971. Located in the previous Postal Palace-itself a historical monument-, the museum had suffered damages due to the March 1977 earthquake; much worse have been the long term consequences, because the reorganisation which followed had been the perfect opportunity for transforming the new institution in the Communist Party idea shop-window. Thus, an entirely section destined to the Loved Ruler exaltation and testimony of his adulation has been opened.
The last decade of the millennium has brought us the possibility to prospect new chances, to perfect ourselves without dossier conditions, to organize exhibitions in collaboration with partners from abroad, to step in the world in order to understand our history from a larger perspective. The National Museum had become, with time, one of the foremost actors of the scientific research on the archaeological ground, being opened annually between 15 and 20 systematic archaeological sites. The Preventive Archaeology section has became, especially during the last years, the titular of the greatest projects in Romania, such as Alburnus Maior or the Motorway Project.
The permanent exhibition enclosed, up to 2002, on almost 10.000 square meters and with approximately 35.000 exhibits, distinct sections dedicated to the National Historical Treasury (which will be the object of this action) and to Trajan's Column (natural scale copy of the monument from Rome, which has remained the main source for the Daco-Roman wars). It also comprises a Lapidarium with antic and medieval monuments, the Prehistoric section, the Classical Antiquity, Medieval and Modern Epochs.
In September 2002, to the National Museum building had been undertaken a series of rehabilitation works (structure, functionality, equipment), from the foundation to the roof. The amplitude of the workings and the necessity for protecting the patrimony have determined us to close down the largest part of the permanent exhibition. Therefore, only the Treasury, the Column and Lapidarium rooms, as well as the temporary exhibitions, organized in the museum's great lobby, have remained, before and after the reorganizing of the museum, opened to the public.
The temporary closing down of some exhibition segments has not meant at all the decreasing of the activity level; on the contrary, during these years we had been part of foremost events, such as the organisation of the International Antic Bronzes Congress, in May 2003, which brought about an imposing profile exhibition, with the contribution of the leading museums from the country. International expositions have also been organized, and we will refer only to the most recent, among which we could mention a prehistoric art display in Stockholm and the exposition on the Swedish Expedition in Cyprus (September 2005-February 2006).
The presence, amid the museum's walls, of the National Historical Treasury, as well as of the over 300.000 Numismatic Cabinet inventory coins, and of numerous other metal artefacts, are all reasons to join the Arheomet Consortium, at the invitation of Dr. Bogdan Constantinescu, an old collaborator of the museum and a passionate for archaeology.
In order to find out more information on the Romanian National History Museum -the institution that hostess and manages this web site - you are welcomed to visit www.mnir.ro.
The actual institution, with this entitling adopted in 1990, having the fundamental research in archaeology as activity field, using auxiliary sciences as numismatics and epigraphy, has inherited the patrimony and has continued the activity of one of the oldest Romanian antiquity museum - the National Museum of Antiquities. The National Museum of Antiquities was transformed, through a decision of the Council of Ministries, in the Institute of Archaeology, on the 5th of June 1956. The Institute will have had further on a distinct department with the name of the old Museum, with the role of conservation and patrimony funds administration.
The Museum of Natural History and Antiquity was established on the 3rd of November 1834 by the ruler Alexandru Ghica, on the basis of the donation made by his brother, the High Official Mihalache Ghica, the donation inventory comprising, together with archaeological inventory objects, numerous geological, mineralogical and faunistical pieces (fossils). The Museum, subordinated to the National Schools Eforia, has initially functioned in the building of Saint Sava College, placed on the today location of Bucharest University. Moreover, it seems that a museum room has been built in the building of the college, together with a library, in 1835. Starting with 1854, the patrimony of this institution enriches with numerous archaeological objects, which came from the occasional discoveries announced to the state by the county chiefs, from donations and acquisitions. A valuable collection has been offered by General N. Mavros on the 22nd of January 1862. In 1863, The Ministry of Cults and Public Instructions decides the separation of the antiquities collection, which corresponded to the natural sciences. On the 25th of November 1864, Alexandru Ioan Cuza signs the decree no. 1648 which approved the Status for administration and organisation of the Museum of Antiquities Bucharest. The oldest Museum of Antiquities comprised four departments: the numismatics and particular heraldic department, general history department, Romanian history section with the ecclesiastic subsection, and the department of curiosities. In 1876 four new departments will be added. To the name of Grigore Tocilescu, the director of the museum between 1881 and 1909, it is related the establishing and organisation of the M.N.A. library and the repeated efforts to obtain an adequate space for the museum's collections. The MNA collections consisted, at the end of the XIXth century, of various historic documents collections, from archaeological, epigraphic, architectural, art collections (starting from prehistory until the XIXth century) to manuscripts, old books, paintings, ethnographical pieces, as well as curiosities, such as old pieces with historical or artistic value, coming from other countries or mouldings and replicas of other nature.
One of the most valuable sections of the museum, the ecclesiastic department, was established on the ground of the secularisation of the ecclesiastical properties law, promulgated by Cuza in 1864, as well as owing to the subsequent acquisitions. The department has been later detached of the MNA, forming today the National Museum of Romanian Art patrimony. The national costumes section will form the nucleus of the Museum of Ethnography and national art; the manuscript, documents and stamps section will form the nucleus of the important collection of the Romanian Academy Library. Starting with 1910, the numismatic collection has been almost completely taken by the Romanian Academy, in order to establish its Numismatic Cabinet.
The National Museum of Antiquities remains, after the transfer of the collections, of the diverse established institutions, with the epigraphic and sculptural department, which, in 1960, comprised the Mihalache Ghica, Nicolae Mavros, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Remus Opreanu collections. To these collections may be added the numerous pieces from discoveries, the patrimony being enriched as well as through private donations. Because the space occupied by MNA in the building of the University was insufficient for the amplitude of the collections, in 1931 the prime-minister N. Iorga has accepted Macca House (in the today No. 3, Henri Coandă Street) as head office of the museum. Macca House had been the head office of the 'Elena Colonel Macca' institution. In the year 1932, the museum had three sections: 1. Prehistoric and medieval antiquities section; 2. Greco-roman antiquities section; 3. Religious art section (known as well as the Museum of Religious Art), situated in the building from No.33, Ştirbei Vodă street. Beginning with the year 1935, the later turned into an independent unit, named Museum of Religious Art.
Starting with 1924, it has been edited, in international circulation languages, the scientific publications such as Dacia (new series from 1957), from 1950 Studii şi Cercetări de Istorie Veche (subsequently and Arheologie), from 1953 Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice, and after the establishing of the Institute of Archaeology, Studii şi Cercetări de Numismatică.
In the year 1945, MNA had the following structure: 1. Pre- and Protohistory section; 2. Greco-roman and medieval section; 3. Numismatic Cabinet. Besides these three departments functioned as well the auxiliary cabinets (drawing, cartography, the ceramic laboratory and the library). In the present structure of the Institute, the Greco-roman and medieval sections are distinct, being added as well the MNA patrimony section.
In the '70-80's, the institution has entered under the tutelage of the Bucharest University. Subsequently, beginning with1990, the Institute will be once again part of the Romanian Academy, taking the complete title - Institute of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan".
The University of Bucharest is one of the most important higher education institutions from Romania. It has been established through ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza's Decree No. 756 from 4th/16th July 1864. Claiming itself as successor of the higher education structures inaugurated by the Ruler Academy (1694), the University of Bucharest has significantly contributed to the development and modernization of the Romanian education, science and culture. During the almost 140 years of existence, the institution has achieved a national as well as an international prestige. Well known schools have stood out in all academic and scientific fields. A great number of University graduates have asserted themselves as leading personalities: professors and researchers at international universities all around the world, members of the Romanian Academy and of academies from other countries, novelists, politicians (parliamentarians, secretaries of state, prim-ministers, presidents), diplomats, high prelates.
The University of Bucharest offers various study programmes, at all levels and forms of university preparation: 22 short-term programmes, more than 75 long-term programmes, 12 open and distance education programmes, over 120 master programmes, over 50 doctoral programmes, high post-university programmes, professional reconversion and perfecting programmes. All the recommended programmes are accredited or authorized. The diplomas offered by the University of Bucharest are recognized in most of the world-wide countries. Moreover, at the University level function study programmes organized in collaboration with prestigious universities from abroad. The graduates of these programmes receive diplomas from the University of Bucharest as well as from the partner universities. The University of Bucharest is one of the most important research centres from the country. At the institution level function more than 50 institutes, research centres and departments, most of them working in collaboration with similar scientific centres from abroad. During the last years, our institution has been constantly positioned on the first place in the national competition for research funds. Several of the research institutions have attained the excellence statute at the European level. The University beneficiates of its own research centres at Sinaia, Brăila, Orşova and pilot centres in other localities from the country.
The University of Bucharest is integrated in an important international cooperation network: more than 100 bilateral international agreements with universities from over 40 countries; academic and European research programmes (Erasmus, Lingua, Naric, Leonardo da Vinci, UNICA, AMOS, TEMUS, TEMPRA). Annually, over 1000 students from the University of Bucharest complete development or specialization stages in universities from West Europe, U.S.A, Canada, Japan, etc. Professors from all over the continent teach every year at the faculties of the University of Bucharest, and likewise professors from our University teach at the international universities. The University of Bucharest has been and still is the promoter of several important measures regarding the development of higher education, which have been taken over as well as by other universities from the country, or have represented the basis for elaborating several national laws and regulations. In 2000, the University of Bucharest has received an Excellence Diploma offered by the Minister of National Education.
University of Bucharest, Faculty of History
The studies in the field of history from the Faculty of History date even since its establishment as higher education institution, through Alexandru Ioan Cuza's Decree no. 765 from 1864.
The Faculty of History has begun functioning as a distinct structure of the University since 1950. Its mission is to act as an education and research centre in the field of historical sciences. Our graduates are prepared for the didactic career, but the most talented have pursued as well a research or higher education scientific career. Muzeology, archivistic, diplomacy, mass-media and other fields of the public services are likewise domains where our graduates have followed a successful career as a result of the preparation that we offer. Moreover, the annually increased candidate number at the entrance examination is a proof of the interest for this domain. Last but not least, a relevant number of our faculty's scholars continue their studies or follow doctoral programmes in the well-known universities from France and Germany.
The teaching body has comprised along the time and still does at the present prestigious teachers, innovators of our domain of study. Presently, our faculty has 61 titular teachers, with different didactic grades, divided in three departments, with an entitling which illustrates the principal paths of study. These departments are coordinated by three of the most known contemporary historians:
- Ancient History and Archaeology Department, coordinated by Prof. Dr. Zoe Petre;
- Romanian History Department, coordinated by Prof. Dr. Ioan Bulei;
- Universal History Department, coordinated by Prof. Dr. Stelian Brezeanu.
Under the subordination of these departments are established nine research centres, which concentrate the efforts of didactic and researcher groups from the institutes of the Academy (which traditionally collaborates with our faculty). Together with them, in the didactic and research activities are engaged, throughout these centres, muzeographs, archivists, specialists from other institutions of the state (especially from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Administration and Interior, and Ministry of Culture), as well as students and post-graduates. The structure of these centres is based upon intern criterions specific to the domain (chronological, methodological and thematic), constituting a research and development structure for the new generations of researchers and professors, active through publications, and as well as throughout the didactic and research activities that they promote.
- The research centres that presently function at our Faculty are:
- The Centre for Ancient History Compared Studies (Prof. Dr. Vlad Nistor);
- The Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan" (Prof. Dr. Mircea Babeş);
- The Centre of Methodological History Research "D. Onciul" (Acad. Ştefan Ştefănescu);
- The Centre for Studying the Editing and Critical Analyze of the Historical Sources (Prof. Dr. Alexandru Barnea);
- The Centre of Church and Religious History (Prof. Dr. Tudor Teoteoi);
- The Centre for Byzantine Studies (Prof. Dr. Stelian Brezeanu);
- The Centre for the History of Imaginary (Prof. Dr. Lucian Boia);
- The Centre for the study of the XXth Century History (Prof. Dr. Ioan Scurtu);
- The Centre for Euro-Atlantic Studies (Prof. Dr. Constantin Buşe).
The Department of Ancient History and Archaeology
Established in 1990, the Department of Ancient History and Archaeology comprises at present 17 members (Prof. Dr. Zoe Petre-head of department, Acad. Aleaxandru Vulpe-consultant professor, Prof. Dr. Alexandru Barnea, Prof. Dr. C. C. Petolescu, Prof. Dr. Mircea Babeş, Prof. Dr. Gheorghe Vlad Nistor, Prof. Dr. Miron Ciho, Conf. Dr. Monica Chicideanu Şandor, Conf. Dr. Ioan Carol Opriş, Conf. Dr. Cristian Olariu, Conf. Dr. Emilian Alexandrescu, Lector Dr. Daniela Zaharia, Lector Dr. Florica Mihuţ, Lector Dr. Carol Căpiţă, Lector Margareta Arsenescu, Assistant Alexandra Clara Ţârlea, Assitant Mihalea Marcu), outstanding personalities in the domain. They are specialists that cover the fundamental fields of the ancient history and archaeology (Ancient Orient, History of Greece, History of Rome, Ancient History of Romania, Archaeology, Epigraphy), with a special tuition and a scientific activity that receives international recognition. Within the department function two centres, the Centre for Ancient Societies Compared History, respectively the Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan". The members of the department have been the promoters of several research programmes, financed by CNCSIS and other Romanian or international institutions. Furthermore, they are authors of important scientific papers, as well as members of the main international profile organizations.
The Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan"
University of Bucharest, Faculty of History
4-12, Regina Elisabeta Boulevard, RO-70031 Bucharest
Tel/Fax 310 06 80
Director: Prof. Dr. Mircea Babeş
The Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan" has been established in 1997, through the decision no. 1621/21.10.1997 of the Rector of the University of Bucharest. Its main goal is to offer a proper organizational space for developing the specialised higher education from the field of pre- and protoarchaeology, Greco-roman and medieval archaeology as well as, though subsidiary, the humanistic and natural sciences, which the archaeology collaborates with (ancient history, epigraphy, numismatics, anthropology, arheozoology, arheometallurgy, informatics). Due to the inexistence of a specialized archaeological education at the University of Bucharest, as well as at the level of the Romanian academically system, the only modality towards a specialisation in this domain and the related disciplines remains the post-graduation programmes.
The research team within the Seminar comprises numerous specialists, members of the Faculty of History Bucharest, but as well as of the most outstanding academic institutions which our Faculty cooperates with (Romanian Academy Archaeology Institute "Vasile Pârvan", the Institute of Defence and Military History Studies): Prof. Dr. Mircea Babeş (director), Acad. Al. Vulpe, Prof. Dr. Al.Barnea, Prof. Dr. C. C. Petolescu, Prof. Dr. Al. Avram, Prof. Dr. M. Ciho, Prof. Dr. A. Luckas, Conf. Dr. I. Opriş, Conf. Dr. Em. Alexandrescu, Lector Dr. V. Dupoi, Lector Dr. C. Căpiţă, Assistant M. Arsenescu, associated Professor Dr. Al. Suceveanu, Dr. Al. Niculescu, Dr. Al. Madgearu.
The objectives of the Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan" - training of archaeologists with a multilateral qualification, theoretically and also practically, responds to a real national necessity, reflected in the high-specialized places of work within the Romanian Academy institutes, universities, history and archaeology museums, central or local patrimony services, as well as the protection of the archaeological monuments, or private archaeological firms engaged in the preventive and rescue archaeological researches. At the same time, the projects developed by the Seminar respond to the need of alignment to the European standards, allowing our graduates to overcome the exigencies of the post-graduate programmes in international outstanding universities. On the other hand, the programs offered by the University of Bucharest may became attractive for foreigners students who wish to specialize by accomplishing research projects regarding the archaeology from the Romanian and south-east European space.
- In order to complete the above mentioned goals, the Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan" intends:
- to promote the students and post-graduates' scientific research activities, through practical activity in the field, and as well in the cabinet; thematic concentration of the respective papers around several major problems; their revaluation throughout communications and, afterwards, their publication in a self-owned publication or in other Romanian or international specialized periodicals;
- to involve the active researchers of the Seminar, together with the students and post-graduates from the Departments of Ancient History and Archaeology, in coordination of archaeological research grants, of history of archaeology, interdisciplinary studies, with intern and international financing;
- to organize extensive long-term archaeological researches (archaeological school-fields), mainly in representative sites such as Zimnicea, Popeşti, Cârlomâneşti, Histria, Tropaeum Traiani, Capidava, Dinogetia, Târgţor, significant for the research themes; involve in preventive/salvation archaeological research sites; organize study visits at other archaeological sites and museums;
- to develop its own library, established up to the present through donations (approximately 2000 specialized books published in Romania and abroad, 1000 abstracts, 2400 periodicals); to organize archaeological databases (repertories, catalogues);
- to organize an archive with illustration which to provide the photographic material for courses and seminars; to develop the archaeological research and didactic study collection;
- to assure modern logistical support, essential for the proper development of the didactic process, study in the library, as well as for the archaeological research undertaken by our specialists (computer network, scans, epidiascopes, projectors, screens, digital cameras);
- to assure mobility for post-graduates through scholarships and visits for documentation in the main European archaeological centres (Berlin, Paris, Roma, Vienna), as well as through research visits in the country, the participation of the teaching body and researchers at international colloquies and congresses, research visits, in order to implement sustained international collaboration
- to invite outstanding personalities of the Romanian and international archaeology for debates, conferences, workshops, international reunions organized by our Seminar, as well as to develop long-term institutional collaborations with prestigious universities from Europe (at the present, functioning strong relationships with universities from Berlin, Köln, Erlangen, Paris, Le Mans, Lille, Vienna, Klagenfurt, Leiden, Chişinău);
The impact of the Seminar of Archaeology "Vasile Pârvan"'s establishing upon the education system finds itself in the educational offer, respectively in the post-graduate programmes organized by the Faculty of History. Most of the members of the seminar lecture, at the present, courses and seminars within the Ancient Greco-roman History and Archaeology post-graduate programme, together with the associated professors-researchers at the Romanian Academy Archaeology Institute "Vasile Pârvan", coordinating over 40 doctoral theses, in different stages of development.