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Conclusions

Contract CEEX 05-D10-70

ARCHAEOMETALLURGICAL STUDIES USING NUCLEAR ANALYTICAL METHODS ON ROMANIAN MUSEUMS GOLD, SILVER AND BRONZE ARTIFACTS (ARCHAEOMET)

The project has targeted to establish a Romanian archaeometallurgy network composed from the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering "Horia Hulubei" (IFIN-HH), Bucharest; National Museum of Romania's History, Bucharest (MNIR); Faculty of History from Bucharest University (FI-UB), Romanian Academy Archaeology Institute "Vasile Parvan" (IA-AR), Bucharest, network with strong connections at European level (through EU COST G8 action, EU-ARTECH, FP6 TARI actions and programs). In the frame of the projects we elaborated - using XRF, SR-XRF and micro-PIXE techniques - of a data base for the composition of museums ancient gold objects and to relate this information with provenance and circulation aspects; the most spectacular application for gold was the authentication of nine Dacian spiraled bracelets recuperated by Romanian authorities. We also elaborated - using XRF and PIXE techniques - a data base for the composition of medieval Moldavian silver coins in relation to technological, historical and commercial aspects, a data base for the composition of Dacian silver jewelry and coins in relation to technological, historical and commercial aspects, and a data base for the composition of museums ancient (prehistoric to Roman-Byzantine) bronze and copper objects in relation to their provenance and circulation aspects. We acquired a portable XRF analysis system and, based on it, we elaborated a procedure for in-situ compositional studies on museums objects; by using this portable state-of-the-art XRF facility, to perform European competitive research in the field of archaeometallurgy. A dedicated to Romanian archaeometallurgy web-site - www. arheomet.ro - was initiated. An e-manual (on CD and web page) with educational purpose was realized; the e-manual presents the archaeometrical potential of the XRF, SR-XRF, PIXE and micro-PIXE techniques and will be illustrated with selected information from the above mentioned data bases.

It is worthwhile stressing that this project allowed the creation of a Romanian archaeometallurgy network, network that actively contribute to the education and formation of the (future) EU citizen, building a shared understanding and respect for Europe's diversities in terms of culture, institutions, history, languages and values.

    The main objectives of the project were:
  1. To establish an archaeometallurgy Romanian network, involving the participation of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering "Horia Hulubei", Bucharest (IFIN-HH); National Museum of Romania's History, Bucharest (MNIR); Faculty of History from Bucharest University (FI-UB), Romanian Academy Archaeology Institute "Vasile Parvan", Bucharest (IA-AR), having strong connections at European level (EU COST G8 action, EU-ARTECH, FP6 TARI);
  2. To elaborate, using XRF, SR-XRF and micro-PIXE techniques, a data base for the composition of museums ancient gold objects and relating this information with provenance (gold sources, workshops and technologies) and circulation aspects (commercial, military problems);
  3. To elaborate, using XRF and PIXE techniques, a data base for the composition of medieval Moldavian silver coins in relation to technological (silver sources, silvering fakes etc) and historical - commercial aspects;
  4. To elaborate, using XRF and PIXE techniques, a data base for the composition of Dacian silver jewelry and coins in relation to technological (silver sources, silvering fakes, barbaric imitations of Greek-Roman coins etc) and historical - commercial aspects;
  5. To elaborate, using XRF technique, a data base for the composition of museums ancient (prehistoric to Roman-Byzantine) bronze and copper objects in relation to their provenance (copper and tin sources, technologies, workshops) and circulation aspects (commercial, military problems);
  6. To acquire a portable XRF analysis system and to elaborate a procedure for in-situ compositional studies on museums objects; by using this portable state-of-the-art XRF facility, to perform European competitive research in the field of archaeometallurgy;
  7. To elaborate an e-manual with educational purpose; the e-manual will present the archaeometrical potential of the XRF, SR-XRF, PIXE and micro-PIXE techniques and will illustrated with the selected information from the above mentioned data bases; the e-manual will be realized on CD and as a specialized interactive website.

For all the above described research activities it is important to emphasize that the multidisciplinary community of action was essential. In the current economic climate - even at European level - it is extremely difficult for museums to develop new analytical methods or techniques. In the last years, a new tendency appeared in archaeometry: the involvement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT for content, creativity and personal development consists in our case in tools for technology-enhanced learning (the mentioned e-manual) and digital cultural resources and assets (the interdisciplinary specialized website www. arheomet.ro, for professionals, students and museums visitors). The establishing of a Romanian archaeometry network through this project will contribute in this way to the education and formation of the EU citizen, building a shared understanding and respect for Europe's diversities in terms of culture, institutions, history, languages and values.

    The main results of the project are:
  • The Romanian archaeometallurgy network (IFIN, HH, MNIR, FI-UB, IA-AR), with European co-operations partners (EU COST G8 action, EU-ARTECH, EU FP6 - FP7);
  • Elaboration - using XRF and micro-PIXE techniques - of a data base for the composition of museums ancient gold objects in relation to their provenance (gold sources, workshops and technologies) and circulation aspects (commercial, military problems ): Dacian bracelets authentication, Koson - type "Dacian" gold staters complex study, Bronze Age gold objects from MNIR treasure characterization (e.g. Moigrad and Persinari famous hoards).
  • Elaboration - using XRF and PIXE techniques - of a data base for the composition of medieval Moldavian and Tara Romaneasca silver coins in relation to technological (silver sources, silvering fakes etc) and historical - commercial aspects: the evolution of the Moldavian monetary system from Petru I to Stefanita (title, debasement, silvering, fakes), studies on first Tara Romaneasca emissions from Vladislav I to Mircea and Vladislav II.
  • Elaboration - using XRF and PIXE techniques of a data base for the composition of Dacian silver jewelry and coins in relation to technological (silver sources, silvering fakes, barbaric imitations of Greek-Roman coins etc) and historical - commercial aspects: the study of Herastrau hoard (Thassos tetradrachms, spiraled bracelets, fibulae).
  • Elaboration - using XRF technique - of a data base for the composition of museums ancient bronze objects in relation to their provenance (copper and tin sources, technologies, workshops) and circulation aspects (commercial, military problems): studies on various Bronze Age (rings, axes, celts) and Roman (fibulae, belts, statues fragments)
  • Acquisition of a portable XRF analysis system and based on it, realization of a procedure for in-situ compositional studies on museums objects; by using this state-of-the-art XRF facility to perform European competitive research.
  • Elaboration of an e-manual about the archaeometrical potential of the XRF, PIXE and micro-PIXE techniques) illustrated with the selection from the above-mentioned data bases on CD support.
  • Realization of a dedicated web site www. arheomet.ro
  • Authentication expertise on nine Dacian gold spiraled bracelets from MNIR, recuperated by Romanian authorities
  • Realization of two International Symposiums on archaeometallurgy - Archaeomet I May 2007, Archaeomet II May 2008.

     

    Relevant scientific publications:

  • Romanian ancient gold objects provenance studies using micro-beam methods: The case of "Pietroasa" hoard, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, D. Grambole, V. Herrmann, D. Ceccato, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 231 (2005) pp. 541-545.
  • Compositional studies on Transylvanian gold nuggets: Advantages and limitations of PIXE-PIGE analysis, Roxana Bugoi, Viorel Cojocaru, Bogdan Constantinescu, Thomas Calligaro, Laurent Pichon, Stefan Rohrs, Joseph Salomon Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 266 (2008) pp.2316-2319.
  • Micro-SR-XRF and micro-PIXE studies for archaeological gold identification - The case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) gold and of Dacian bracelets, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, M. Radtke, T. Calligaro, J. Salomon, L.Pichon, S. Rohrs, D. Ceccato, E. Oberlaender-Tarnoveanu Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 266 (2008) pp. 2325-2328.
  • Micro SR-XRF and micro-PIXE studies for archaeological gold identification - the case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) gold and of Dacian bracelets - B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, E. Oberlaender-Tarnoveanu, R. Simon, D. Grambole, F. Munnik - International Conference on X-ray Microscopy, Kyoto, September 2007, to be published in Spectrochimica Acta B
  • Investigation of Neolithic ceramic pigments using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, Roxana Bugoi, Emmanuel Pantos, Bogdan Constantinescu, and Dragomir Popovici - Powder Diffraction - American Institute of Physics, September 2008 (in press)
  • Study on Pigments for Ceramics and Glass Using X-ray Methods, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, G. Niculescu, D. Popovici, G. Manucu-Adamesteanu, "X-rays for Archaeology", edited by M. Uda, G. Demortier and I. Nakai, Springer, (2005), pp. 163-172.
  • Micro-PIXE studies on Visigothic "Pietroasa" Gold Hoard, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, T. Calligaro, J. Salomon, S. Roehrs, D. Ceccato, in Non-Destructive Testing and Analysis of Museum Objects, eds. A. Denker, A. Adriaens, M. Dowsett, A. Giumglia-Mair, Frauenhofer IRB Verlag (2006), pp 73-82
  • Phase and chemical composition analysis of pigments used in Cucuteni Neolithic painted ceramics, Bogdan Constantinescu, Roxana Bugoi, Emmanuel Pantos, Dragomir Popovici, Documenta Praehistorica XXXIV, Ljubljana, (2007) pag. 281-288
  • Compositional Studies on Iznik Ceramics Pigments, R. Bugoi, A. Climent-Font, B. Constantinescu, A. d'Alessandro, P. Prati, A. Zucchiatti, 8th European Meting on Ancient Ceramics, ed. Y. Waksman, Maison de l'Orient et de la Mediterranee, Lyon (2007), pp 146-150
  • Compositional Studies on Iznik Ceramics Pigments, B. Constantinescu - Proceedings of the Symposion Internationale Couleur & Temps, Institut National de Patrimoine, Paris, June (2006) pp. 266-271
  • Some metallurgical aspects of ancient silver coins discovered in Romania - original and imitations - B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru - 2nd International Archaeometallurgy in Europe 2007, Aquileia (Italy), June 2007 - Proceedings in press
  • Les imitations d'apres les aspres ottomans des XVe - XVIe siecles : quelques analyses compositionnelles, Eugen Nicolae, Bogdan Constantinescu - The notes of IInd international numismatic symposium, Istanbul 2008, pp. 91-96
  • Spre o abordare cat mai obiectiva in cercetarea numismatica prin analize compozitionale folosind metode nucleare - B. Constantinescu, V. Cojocaru, R. Bugoi, Cercetari numismatice IX-XI (2005) 389-404
  • Tezaurul de grosi moldovenesti din sxecolul al XIV-lea descoperit la Marmureni, com. Oniceni, jud. Neamt - K. Parvan, B. Constantinescu, Cercetari numismatice IX-XI (2005) 225-286
  • Some considerations on X-Ray Fluorescence use in museum measurements - the case of medieval silver coins - B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, E. Oberlaender - Tarnoveanu, K. Parvan, Romanian Journal of Physics, vol. 57, nos. 4 (2005) 1021-1031.
  • Un disc de tip Valcitran descoperit la Calarasi (jud. Dolj) - D. Bondoc, B. Constantinescu, Studii si Cercetari de Istorie Veche si Arheologie, Tom 54-56 (2003-2005) 279-289.
  • Monede moldovenesti din colectia Corneliu Secasanu, Katiusa Parvan, B. Constantinescu, Cercetari numismatice XII- XIII, (2006-2007), pag. 373-422

     

    Relevant scientific presentations:

  • Micro-XRF and micro-PIXE studies for archaeological gold identification. The case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) gold and of Dacian bracelets, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, M. Radtke, T. Calligaro, S. Roehrs, J. Salomon, E. Oberlaender - Tarnoveanu, D. Ceccato., Cea de-a 9-a Conferintza Europeana de Acceleratori si Aplicatziile lor in Stiintza si Tehnologie - Florence, Italy - September 2007
  • MICRO SR-XRF and Micro-PIXE Studies for Archaeological Gold Identification - the Case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) Gold, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, M. Radtke, T. Calligaro, J. Salomon, L. Pichon, S. Roehrs, D. Ceccato, Al 10-lea Congres International de Optica si Microanaliza folosind razele X", Kyoto Japan, September 2007
  • Some Metallurgical Aspects of Ancient Silver Coins Discovered in Romania (Original and Imitations). Provenance, Destination and Commercial Networks, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, Al. Sasianu., A II-a Conferintza Internatzionala "Archaeometallurgy in Europe" - Aquileia Italy - June 2007
  • Studies on ancient gold objects from Romanian museums, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, D. Grambole, V. Hermann, D. Ceccato,Conferintza "Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology", Germany - April 2007
  • Silver Thassos, Macedonian Tetradrachms and Apollonia - Dyrrchachium Drachms Discovered in Romania (Original and Imitations) - Provenance, Destination and Commercial Networks, B. Constantinescu, R. Bugoi, V. Cojocaru, Al. Sasianu, Colocviul "Archeometrie'07" - Aix-en-Provence, France - aplilie 2007
  • Compositional studies on Transylvanian gold nuggets: advantages and limitations of PIXE-PIGE analysis, - R. Bugoi, B. Constantinescu, T. Calligaro, V. Cojocaru, J. Salomon, Cea de-a 9-a Conferintza Europeana de Acceleratori si Aplicatziile lor in Stiintza si Tehnologie - Florence, Italy September 2007